Acta Vet. Brno 2010, 79: 481-490

Size-relative Effectiveness of Clove Oil as an Anaesthetic for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) and Goldfish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758)

Costas Perdikaris1, Cosmas Nathanailides1, Evangelia Gouva1, Ugwemorubong Ujagwung Gabriel2, Konstantina Bitchava3, Fotini Athanasopoulou3, Ageliki Paschou4, Ioannis Paschos1

1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Technological Educational Institute of Epirus, Igoumenitsa, Greece
2Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria
3Laboratory of Ichthyology and Aquatic Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece
4Hatzikosta Hospital, Haematology and Microbiology Laboratory, Ioannina, Greece

The purpose of this work was to investigate the size-relative effectiveness of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout and goldfish. In total, 128 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (two groups of 20-23 and 30-33 cm mean fork length) and 160 goldfish (Carassius auratus) (four size groups of 1.5-2.5, 5-7, 11-15 and 20-25 cm) were anaesthetized at different clove oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for trouts and 75, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for goldfish. Rainbow trout exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli with shorter induction time as dosage increased (120.5 s, 64.4 s and 44.3 s, respectively). Goldfish exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli after induction time that varied with dosage used and body size of fish. The small fish (1.5-7 cm) exhibited shorter induction time which ranged from 84.28 s at 75 mg·l-1 clove oil to 41.14 s at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. The larger fish had a longer induction time inversely related to the dosage. Recovery time was longer than induction time in both species. Both species recovered within 6 min after anaesthesia at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. Clove oil did not produce marked changes (P < 0.05) in the physiological indicators of goldfish compared to the control. However, marked changes (P < 0.05) were exhibited in the haematocrit of treated rainbow trout that also exhibited hyperkalaemia and hyperglycaemia (P > 0.05). For both fish species, clove oil was effective, producing minimum stress and zero mortalities, and can be recommended as an effective anaesthetic.


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