Acta Vet. Brno 2011, 80: 101-105

Cortisol concentration in the saliva of horses subjected to different kinds of exercise

Katarzyna Strzelec1, Marta Kankofer2, Sławomir Pietrzak1

1Department of Horse Breeding and Use, Faculty of Animal Biology and Breeding, University of Life Science in Lublin, Poland
2Department of Animal Biochemistry and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Science in Lublin, Poland


1. Aadral E, Holm AC 1985: Cortisol in saliva – references ranges and relation to cortisol in serum. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 33: 927-932
2. Brandenberger G, Follenius M 1982: Influence of timing and intensity of muscular exercise on temporal patterns of plasma cortisol levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 54: 592-596 <>
3. Clements AD, Parker CR 1998: The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations in frozen versus mailed samples. Psychoneuroendocrinology 23: 613-616 <>
4. Cooper TR, Trunkfield HR, Zanella AJ, Booth WD 1989: An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for cortisol in the saliva of man and domestic animals. J Endocrinol 123: R13-R16 <>
5. Fell LR, Shutt DA 1986: Use of salivary cortisol as an indicator of stress due to management practices in sheep and calves. Proc Aust Soc Anim Prod 16: 203-206
6. Harewood EI, McGowan CM 2005: Behavioral and physiological responses to stabling in Naive Horses. J Equine Vet Sci 4 164-170 <>
7. Hartwig W 1989: Endokrynologia praktyczna (Practical Endocrinology). Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich. Warszawa, 538-576
8. Hoffis G, Murdick P, Tharp V, Ault K 1970: Plasma concentration of cortisol and corticosterone in the normal horse. Am J Vet Res 31: 1379-1387
9. Hyyppa S 2002: Endocrinal responses and regulation in exercising horses. Book of Abstracts of the 53rd Annual Meeting of European Association for Animal Production No 8, Cairo, 270 p.
10. Irvine CH, Alexander SL 1994: Factors affecting the circadian rhythm in plasma cortisol concentration in the horse. Domest Anim Endocrinol 11: 227-238 <>
11. Jimenez M, Hinchcliff KW, Harris JW 1998: Catecholamine and cortisol responses of horses to incremental exertion. Vet Res Commun 22: 107-118 <>
12. Larrson M, Edqvist LE, Ekman L, Person S 1979: Plasma cortisol in the horse, diurinal rhythm and effects of exogenous ACTH. Acta Vet Scand 20: 16-24
13. Linden A, Art T, Amory H, Desmecht D, Lekeux P 1991: Effect of 5 different exercise, transportation and ACTH administration on plasma cortisol concentration in sport horses. Equine Exercise Physiology 3. ICEEP Publications, Davis, California, pp. 391-396
14. Lindner A, Will Y, Chrispeels J 1990: Reference values for cortisol, T4 and T-uptake in different horse groups using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 103: 411-416
15. Moons C, Heleski CR, Leece CM, Zanella AJ 2002: Conflicting results in the association between plasma and salivary cortisol level in foals. Proceedings of the Dorothy Russel Havemeyer Foundation Workshop “Horse Behavior and Welfare”. Holar College te Holar, Ijsland
16. Mostl E, Palme R 2002: Hormones as indicators of stress. Domest Anim Endocrinol 23: 67-74 <>
17. Nagata S, Takeda F, Kurosawa M, Hiraga A, Kai M, Taya K 1999: Plasma adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and catecholamines response to various exercise. Equine Vet J Suppl 30: 570-574
18. Nogueira GP, Barnabe RC 1997: Is the thoroughbred race-horses under chronic stress? Braz J Med Biol Res 30: 1237-1239 <>
19. Pell SM, McGreevy PD 1999: A study of cortisol and beta-endorphin levels in stereotypic and normal Thoroughbreds. Appl Anim Behavr Sci 64: 81-90 <>
20. Ślebodziński A 1979: Zarys endokrynologii zwierząt użytkowych (Endocrinology of Farm Animals). PWN, Warszawa, 207-247
21. Van Der Kolk JH, Nachreiner RF, Scott HC, Refsal KR, Zanella KJ 2001: Salivary and plasma concentration of cortisol in normal horses and horses with Cushing’s disease. Equine Vet J 33: 211-213 <>
22. Vining RF, McGinley RA, Maksvytis JJ, Ho KY 1983: Salivary cortisol: A better measure of adrenal cortical function than serum cortisol. Ann Clin Biochem 20: 329-335 <>
front cover
  • ISSN 0001-7213 (printed)
  • ISSN 1801-7576 (electronic)

Current issue