Acta Vet. Brno 2012, 81: 49-55

Selected abiotic factors that influence raw cow milk freezing point depression

Oto Hanuš1, Kristýna Hanušová2, Marcela Vyletělová1, Tomáš Kopec3, Libor Janů2, Jaroslav Kopecký2

1Research Institute for Cattle Breeding, Rapotín, The Czech Republic
2AgriResearch, Rapotín, The Czech Republic
3Czech Fleckvieh Breeders Association, Prague, The Czech Republic

Freezing point depression (FPD) is an important property of milk that is influenced primarily by milk components connected to osmotic pressure. Under certain conditions it is possible to detect the addition of water to milk. It is necessary to have the right FPD limit in legislation for milk quality control. The aim of this study was to improve the estimation procedure of this limit. Apart from factors related to dairy cow nutrition, cattle breed and milk yield, it is important to take into account CO2 (6%), water steam evaporation and pasteurization under technological conditions. Bulk milk samples (1, 30, 6, 6, 10, 1 according to experiment) from Holstein and Czech Fleckvieh breed (1:1) were used in the experiments and technologically treated. The effects of water addition (water saturated and unsaturated by CO2), carbon dioxide evaporation and pasteurization (80 °C for 22 min) were quantified. Pasteurization aggravation of FPD was -0.00394 ± 0.00171 ºC (P < 0.001). Aggravation due to carbon dioxide evaporation could be -0.00383 ± 0.00095 ºC (P < 0.001) depending on practice. Increase in FPD is recorded after milking during technological procedures of milk storage, mixing, pumping, transport shaking and warming. During FPD shift, the acuteness of FPD data sets increases. This fact should be considered in the process of deriving standard raw cow milk FPD limits. Similar experimental analysis of milk FPD technological shifts has not been performed in this way until now.


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