Acta Vet. Brno 2015, 84: 47-53

Comparative data concerning aflatoxin contents in Bt maize and non-Bt isogenic maize in relation to human and animal health – a review

Vladimír Ostrý1,2, František Malíř2, Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz3

1National Institute of Public Health in Prague, Center for Health, Nutrition and Food, Brno, Czech Republic
2University of Hradec Kralove, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
3University of Toulouse, INP/ENSA Toulouse, Department Bioprocess & Microbial Systems, Laboratory Chemical Engineering, Auzeville-Tolosane, France

Received June 6, 2014
Accepted November 26, 2014


1. Abbas HK, Accinelli C, Zablotowicz RM, Abel CA, Bruns HA, Dong Y, Shier WT 2008: Dynamics of mycotoxin and Aspergillus flavus levels in aging Bt and non-Bt corn residues under Mississippi no-till conditions. J Agric Food Chem 56: 7578-7585 <>
2. Abbas HK, Shier TW, Cartwright RD 2007: Effect of temperature, rainfall and planting date on aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in commercial Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids in Arkansas. Phytoprotection 88: 41-50 <>
3. Abbas HK, Wilkinson JR, Zablotowicz RM, Accinelli C, Abel CA, Bruns HA, Weaver MA 2009: Ecology of Aspergillus flavus, regulation of aflatoxin production and management strategies to reduce aflatoxin contamination of corn. J Toxicol Toxins Rev 28: 142-153 <>
4. Abbas HK, Zablotowicz RM, Weaver MA, Shier TW, Bruns HA, Bellaloui N, Accinelli C, Abel CA 2013: Implications of Bt traits on mycotoxin contamination in maize: Overview and recent experimental results. J Agri Food Chem 61: 11759-11770 <>
5. Accinelli C, Abbas HK, Zablotowicz RM, Wilkinson JR 2008: Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin occurrence and expression of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes in soil. Can J Microbiol 54: 371-379 <>
6. Bandyopadhyay R 2010: Higher quality maize with Aflasafe. Appropriate Technol 37: 39-41
7. Bruns HA, Abbas HK 2006: Planting date effects on Bt and non-Bt corn in the mid-South USA. Agronomy J 98: 100-106 <>
8. Cleveland TE, Dowd PF, Desjardins AE, Bhatnagar D, Cotty PJ 2003: United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on pre-harvest prevention of mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in US crops. Pest Manag Sci 59: 629-642 <>
9. Chulze SN 2010: Strategies to reduce mycotoxin levels in maize during storage: a review. Food Addit Contam Part A 27:651-657 <>
10. Chung OK, Park SH, Kim Y 2007: Concerted efforts in cereal grain quality improvement. In: Proceedings N° 126 of ICC International Conference on cereals and cereal products quality and safety, Rosario, Argentina, 23-26 September 2007, pp. 52-71
11. Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 March 2001 on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms and repealing Council Directive 90/220/EEC 2001: Off J Eur Comm L 106: 1-38
12. Donner M, Atehnkeng J, Sikora RA, Bandyopadhyay R, Cotty PJ 2010: Molecular characterization of atoxigenic strains for biological control of aflatoxins in Nigeria. Food Addit Contam 27: 576-590 <>
13. Ehrlich KC, Kobbeman K, Montalbano BG, Cotty PJ 2007: Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Thailand. Int J Food Microbiol 114: 153-159 <>
14. EC (European Commision) 2014: EU register of GM food and feed. Available at: Accessed June 6, 2014
15. FAOSTAT (Statistics at Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) 2014: World maize production. Available at: Accessed June 6, 2014
16. Fung F, Clark RF 2004: Health effects of mycotoxins: a toxicological overview. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42: 217-234 <>
17. GMO Compass 2014: GM maize in the EU. Available at: Last modified May 7, 2013. Accessed June 6, 2014
18. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) 1993: IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks of Chemicals to Humans. Volume 56: Some naturally occurring substances: some food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins: IARC, Lyon, 599 p.
19. Kebede HA, Abbas HK, Fisher DK, Bellaloui N 2012: Relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. Toxins 4: 1385-1403 <>
20. Machinski M, Soares LMV 2000: Fumonisins B1 and B2 in Brazilian corn-based food products. Food Addit Contam 17: 875-879
21. Masoero F, Moschini M, Rossi F, Prandini A, Pietri A 1999: Nutritive value, mycotoxin contamination and in vitro rumen fermentation of normal and genetically modified corn (Cry1Ab) grown in northern Italy. Maydica 44: 205-209
22. Miller JD 1995: Fungi and mycotoxins in grain: implications for stored product research. J Stored Prod Res 31: 1-6 <>
23. Ostry V, Ovesna J, Skarkova J, Pouchova V, Ruprich J 2010: A review on comparative data concerning Fusarium mycotoxins in Bt maize and non-Bt isogenic maize. Mycotox Res 26: 141-145 <>
24. Pazzi F, Lener M, Colombo L, Monastra, G 2006: Bt maize and mycotoxins: the current state of research. Ann Microbiol 56: 223-230 <>
25. Pfohl-Leszkowicz A 2009: Mycotoxins: risk factor of cancer. Afr J Cancer 1: 42-55 <>
26. Santos L, Marin S, Sanchis V, Ramos AJ 2009: Screening of mycotoxin multicontamination in medicinal and aromatic herbs sampled in Spain. J Sci Food Agric 89: 1802-1807 <>
27. Smith MS, Riley TJ 1992: Direct and interactive effects of planting date, irrigation, and corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) damage on aflatoxin production in preharvest corn. J Econ Entomol 85: 998-1006 <>
28. Strosnider H, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Banziger M, Bhat RV, Breiman R, Brune MN, DeCock K, Dilley A, Groopman J, Hell K, Henry SH, Jeffers D, Jolly C, Jolly P, Kibata GN, Lewis L, Liu X, Luber G, McCoy L, Mensah P, Miraglia M, Misore A, Njapau H, Ong CN, Onsongo MT, Page SW, Park D, Patel M, Phillips T, Pineiro M, Pronczuk J, Rogers HS, Rubin C, Sabino M, Schaafsma A, Shephard G, Stroka J, Wild C, Williams JT, Wilson D. 2006: Workgroup report: public health strategies for reducing aflatoxin exposure in developing countries. Environ Health Perspect 114: 1898-1903
29. Vargas EA, Preis RA, Castro L, Silva CMG 2001: Co–occurrence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, zearalenone and fumonisin B1 in Brazilian corn. Food Addit Contam 18: 981-986 <>
30. Wiatrak PJ, Wright DL, Marois JJ, Wilson D 2005: Influence of planting date on aflatoxin accumulation in Bt, non-Bt, and tropical non-Bt hybrids. Agron J 97: 440-445 <>
31. Williams WP, Windham GL, Buckley PM, Daves CA 2002: Aflatoxin accumulation in conventional and transgenic corn hybrids infested with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J Agri Urb Entomol 19: 227-236
32. Williams WP, Windham GL, Buckley PM, Perkins JM 2005: Southwestern corn borer damage and aflatoxin accumulation in conventional and transgenic corn hybrids. Field Crop Res 91: 329-336 <>
33. Williams WP, Windham GL, Buckley PM, Daves CA 2006: Aflatoxin accumulation in corn hybrids infested at different growth stages with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J Agric Urban Entomol 23: 97-103
34. Williams WP, Windham GL, Krakowsky MD, Scully BT, Ni X 2010: Aflatoxin accumulation in Bt and non-Bt maize testcrosses. J Crop Improv 24: 392-399 <>
35. Windham GL, Williams WP, Davis FM 1999: Effects of the southwestern corn borer on Aspergillus flavus kernel infection and aflatoxin accumulation in maize hybrids. Plant Dis 83: 535-540 <>
36. Wu F, Miller JD, Casman EA 2004: Bt corn and mycotoxin reduction: an economic perspective. J Toxicol Toxin Rev 23: 397-424 <>
37. Wu F 2006: Mycotoxin reduction in Bt corn: potential economic, health, and regulatory impacts. Transgenic Res 15: 277-289 <>
38. Wu F 2007: Bt corn and mycotoxin reduction. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Vet Sci Nutr Nat Res 2:1-8
39. Wu F, Khlangwiset P 2010: Health and economic impacts and cost-effectiveness of aflatoxin-reduction strategies in Africa: case studies in biocontrol and postharvest interventions. Food Addit Contam 27: 496-509 <>
front cover
  • ISSN 0001-7213 (printed)
  • ISSN 1801-7576 (electronic)

Current issue

Indexed in DOAJ