Acta Vet. Brno 2017, 86: 239-248

Metabolic and mineral conditions of retained placenta in highly productive dairy cows: pathogenesis, diagnostics and prevention – a review

Ryszard Mordak1, Józef Nicpoń1, Josef Illek2

1Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Internal Diseases with Clinic for Horses, Dogs and Cats, Wrocław, Poland
2University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Large Animal Clinical Laboratory, Brno, Czech Republic

Received November 29, 2016
Accepted October 2, 2017


1. Abdelhameed AR, Ahmed WM, El Ekhnawy KI, El Khadrawy HH 2009: Strategy trials for prevention of retained fetal membranes in Friesian herds in Egypt. Global Vet 3: 63-68
2. Aernouts B, Polshn E, Lammertyn J, Saeys W 2011: Visible and near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of raw milk for cow health monitoring: reflectance or transmittance? J Dairy Sci 94: 5315-5329 <>
3. Bademkiran S, Kaya HH 2006: Comparison of the betareceptor blockers (carazolol) and PGF2α to prevent the retained placenta in cows due to dystocia. Istambul Univ J Fac Vet Med 32: 69-79
4. Baines JR, Herbrink J 2013: Online milk analysis. Cattle Pract 21: 218-22116
5. Beagley JC, Whitman KJ, Baptiste KE, Scherzer J 2010: Physiology and treatment of retained fetal membranes in cattle. J Vet intern Med 24: 261-268 <>
6. Bionaz E, Trevisi E, Calamari L, Librandi F, Ferrari A, Bertoni G 2007: Plasma paraoxonase, health, inflammatory conditions and liver function in transition dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 90: 1740-1750 <>
7. Cai TQ, Weston PG, Lund LA, Brodie B, McKenna, DJ, Wagner WCI 2002: Association between neutrophil function and periparturient disorders in cows. Am J Vet Res 55: 934-943
8. Cermakova J, Kudrina, V, Illek, J, Blazkova K, Haman J, 2012: Effects of a rumen-protected form of methionine and a methionine analogue on the lactation perfomance of dairy cows. Czech J Anim Sci 57: 410-419 <>
9. Chapinal N, Carson ME, Duffield TF, Capel M, Godden S, Overton M, Santos JEP, LeBlanc SJ 2011: The association of serum metabolites with clinical disease during the transition period. J Dairy Sci 94: 4897-4903 <>
10. Civelek T, Celik HA, Avci G, Cingi CC 2008: Effects of dystocia on plasma cortisol and cholesterol levels in Holstein hefers and their newborn calves. Bull Vet Inst Pulavy 52: 649-654
11. Davies CJ, Hill JR, Edwards JL, Schrick FN, Fisher PJ, Eldridge JA, Schlafer DH 2004: Major histocompatibility complex antigen expression on the bovine placenta: its relationship to abnormal pregnancies and retained placenta. Anim Reprod Sci 82-83: 267-280 <>
12. Davies CJ, Eldridge JA, Fisher PJ, Schlafer DH 2006: Evidence for expression of both classical and non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I genes in bovine trophoblast cells. Am J Reprod Immunol 55: 188-200 <>
13. deBoer MW, LeBlanc SJ, Dubuc J, Meier S, Heuwieser W, Arlt S, Gilbert RO, McDougall S 2014: Invited review: Systemic review of diagnostic test for reproductive–tract infection and inflammation in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 97: 3983-3999 <>
14. Dembiński Z, Bronicki M 1999: Lydium KLP (dimer of lisozyme) in prophylaxis of retention secundinarum in cows. Proc. 1st Middle –European Buiatric Congress. Balatonfured, Hungary: pp. 210-21315
15. Emmanuel DGV, Jafari A, Beauchemin KA, Leedle JAZ, Ametaj BN 2007: Feeding live cultures of Enterococcus faecium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces and inflammatory response in feedlot steers. J Anim Sci 85: 233-239 <>
16. Esposito G, Irons PC, Webb EC, Chapwanya A 2014: Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 144: 60-71 <>
17. Goff JP, Horst RL 1997: Physiological changes at parturition and their relationship to metabolic disorders. J Dairy Sci 80: 1260-1268 <>
18. Goff J P 2006: Immune suppression around the time of calving and the impact of metabolic disease. XXV Jubilee World Buiatrics Congress Budapest, Hungary. Hungarian Vet J 130 Suppl 1: 39-42
19. Goff JP 2006: Major advances in our understanding of nutritional influence on bovine health. J Dairy Sci 89: 1292-1301 <>
20. Gray CP, George TDSt, Jonsson NN 2007: Milk fever in dairy cattle: a novel hypothesis for immune mediated etiology. Cattle Pract 15: 277-282
21. Grummer RR 2008: Nutritional and management strategies for the prevention of fatty liver in dairy cattle. Vet J 176: 10-20 <>
22. Hill JR, Schlafer DH, Fisher PJ, Davies CJ 2002: Abnormal expression of trophoblast major histocompatibility complex class I antigens in cloned bovine pregnancies is associated with a pronounced endometrial lymphocytic response. Biol Reprod 67: 55-63 <>
23. Joosten I, Hensen EJ 1992: Retained placenta an immunological approach. Anim Reprod Sci 28: 451-461 <>
24. Illek J, Kumprechtova D, Matejicek M, Vlcek M 2009: Metabolic profile in high-producing dairy cows in different phases of the calving-to-calving interval. Folia Vet 1: 73
25. Horst RL, Jorgensen NA 1982: Elevated plasma cortisol during induced and spontaneous hypocalcaemia in ruminants. J Dairy Sci 65: 2332-2337 <>
26. Horta AEM, Chassange M, Brachart MP 1986: Prostaglandin F2 alpha and prostacyclin inbalance in cows with placental retention – new findings. Annal Recher Vet 17: 395-400
27. Jahan N, Minuti A, Trevisi E 2015: Assessment of immune response in periparturient dairy cows using in ex vivo whole blood stimulation assay with lipopolysaccharides and carrageenan skin test. Vet Immunol and Immunopathol 165: 119-126 <>
28. Kendall NR, Bone P 2006: Fertility and trace elements-an understand problem. Cattle Pract 14: 17-22
29. Kiczka W 1994: From lysozyme monomer to lysozyme dimer. Proc XVII Buiatric Congress Bologna, Italy, pp. 897-900
30. Kimura K, Goff JP, Ir MEK, Reinhardt TA 2002: Decreased neutrophil function as a cause of retained placenta in dairy cows. Am Dairy Sci 85: 544-550 <>
31. Kimura K, Goff JP, Reinhardt TA, Saito S, Tyler HD 2003: Association between retained placenta and impaired neutrophil function in dairy cows. Acta Vet Scand 44 (Suppl 1): 24 <>
32. Kimura K, Reinhardt TA, Goff JP 2006: Parturition and hypocalcemia blunts calcium signals and immune cells of dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 89: 2588-2595 <>
33. Kimura K, Goff JP, Kehrli ME Jr 1999: Effects of the presence mammary gland on expression of neutrophil adhesion molecules and myeloperoxidase activity in periparturient dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 82: 2385-2392 <>
34. Kudrna V, Illek J, Marounek A, Ngoc AN 2009: Feeding ruminally protected methionine to pre- and postpartum dairy cows: effect on milk performance, milk composition and blood parameters. Czech J Anim Sci 54: 395-402 <>
35. Lamp O, Derno M, Otten W, Mielenz M, Nürnberg G, Kuhla B 2015: Metabolic heat stress adaption in transition cows: differences in macronutrient oxidation between late-gestating and early-lactating German Holstein dairy cows. Plos One 10: e0125264 <>
36. Laven RA, Peters A 1996: Bovine retained placenta: etiology, pathogenesis and economic losses. Vet Rec 139: 465-471 <>
37. Laven RA 1998: Use of oxytocine to prevent retained placenta after induction with cloprostenol. Cattle Pract 6: 291-296
38. LeBlanc S J, Herdt TH, Seymour WM, Duffield TF, Leslie KE 2004: Peripartum serum vitamin E, retinol, and betacarotene in dairy cattle and their associations with disease. J Dairy Sci 87: 609-619 <>
39. LeBlanc SJ 2010: Monitoring metabolic health of dairy cattle in transition period. J Reprod Dev 56 Suppl 1: 29-35 <>
40. LeBlanc SJ 2012: Interactions of metabolism, inflammation and reproductive tract in postpartum period in dairy cattle. Reprod Domest Anim 47 Suppl 5: 18-30 <>
41. LeBlanc SJ 2013: Managing transition period health for reproductive performance in dairy cows. Cattle Pract 21: 209-215
42. Lucy M 2008: Mechanisms linking growth hormone, insulin and reproduction: Lessons from postpartum dairy cow. Cattle Pract 14: 23-32
43. Martins VMV, Marques Junior AP, Vasconelos AC, Martins E, Santos RL, Lima FPC 2004: Placental maturation and expulsion in Holstein and Nelore cows. Arg Bras Med Vet Zootec 56: 157-167 <>
44. McNaughton AP, Murray RD 2009: Structure and function of the bovine fetomaternal unit in relation to the causes of retained fetal membranes. Vet Rec 165: 615-622 <>
45. Mee JF 2004: The role of micronutrients in bovine periparturient problems. Cattle Pract 12: 95-108
46. Milewski S, Sobiech P 2009: Effect of dietary supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae dried yeast on milk yield, blood biochemical and haematological indices in ewes. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 53: 753-758
47. Milewski S, Sobiech P, Bednarek D, Wójcik R, Małaczewska J, Zaleska B, Siwicki A 2010: Effect of oligosaccharides supplementation on the meat performance traits and selected indicators of humoral immunity in lambs. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 54: 175-179
48. Miyoshi M, Sawamukai Y, Ivanaga T 2002: Reduced phagocytic activity macrophages in bovine retained placenta. Reprod Dom Anim 37: 53-56 <>
49. Mordak R 1991: Clinical observations after use of propranolol in cows after calving. Now Wet 21: 26-32
50. Mordak R, Nicpoń J 2006: Values of some blood parameters in dairy cows before and after delivery as a diagnostic monitoring of health in herd. EJPAU 9: 1-5
51. Mordak R, Nicpoń J 2006: Selected blood parameters in cows at the periparturient period and increasing lactation. Med Wet 62: 1292-1294
52. Mordak R 2006: Usefulness of haptoglobin for monitoring the efficiency of therapy of fetal membrane retention. Med Wet 64: 434-437
53. Mordak R 2009: Postpartum serum concentration of haptoglobin in cows with fetal membranes retention. Cattle Pract 17: 100-102
54. Mordak R, Nicpoń J, Kubiak K, Jankowski M 2008: Hysteroscopy in the early postpartum period in cows. Med Wet 64: 1023-1025
55. Mordak R 2011: Retained fetal membranes in cows depending on the course of delivery and the use of the lysozyme dimer after expulsion of fetus. Monograph published by Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences pp. 33-39
56. Mordak R, Stewart PA 2015: Periparturient stress and immune suppression as a potential cause of retained placenta in highly productive dairy cows: examples of prevention. Acta Vet Scand 57: 84 <>
57. Moretti P, Probo M, Morandi N, Trevisi E, Ferrari A, Minuti A, Venturini M, Paltrinieri S, Giordano A 2015: Early post-partum hematological changes in Holstein dairy cows with retained placenta. Anim Reprod Sci 152: 17-25 <>
58. Mormede P, Andanson S, Aupérin B, Beerda B, Guémené D, Malmkvist J, Manteca X, Manteuffel G, Prunet P, van Reenen CG, Richard S, Veissier I 2007: Exploration of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function as a tool to evaluate animal welfare. Physiol Behav 92: 317-339 <>
59. Nordlund K 2005: Herd-based monitors and tests for dairy cow and calf problems. Cattle Practice 13: 87-92
60. Peter AT 2013: Bovine placenta: a review on morphology, components and defects from terminology and clinical perspectives. Theriogenol 80: 693-705 <>
61. Pohl A, Burfeind O, Heuwieser W 2015: The associations between postpartum serum haptoglobin concentration and metabolic status, calving difficulties, retained fetal membranes, and metritis. J Dairy Sci 98: 4544-4551 <>
62. Price PJ, Banki Z, Scheideler A, Stoiber H, Verschoor A, Sutter G, Lehmann MH 2015: Complement component C5 recruits neutrophils in the absence of C3 during respiratory infection with modified vaccinia virus Anka. J Immunol 194: 1164-1168 <>
63. Rabelo E, Rexende RL, Bertics SJ, Grummer RR 2005: Effects of pre- and postfresh transition diets varying in dietary energy density on metabolic status of periparturient dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 88: 4375-4383 <>
64. Saito S 2001: Cytokines cross talk between mother and the embryoplacenta. J Reprod Immunol 52: 15-33 <>
65. Semacan A 2005: Liver function in cows with retained placenta. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 29: 775-778
66. Schlafer DH, Fisher PJ, Davies CJ 2000: Bovine placenta before and after birth. Placental development and function in health and disease. Anim Reprod Sci 60-61: 145-160 <>
67. Sheldon IM, Lewis GS, LeBlanc S, Gilbert RO 2006: Defining postpartum uterine disease in cattle. Theriogenol 61: 1516-1530 <>
68. Sobiech P, Rypuła K, Wojewoda-Kotwica B, Michalski S 2010: Usefulness of calcium-magnesium products in parturientparesis in HF cows. J Elementol 15: 693-704
69. Spears JW, Weiss PW 2008: Role of antioxidants and trace elements in health and immunity of transition dairy cows. Vet J 176: 70-76 <>
70. Spolders M 2007: New results of trace elements research in cattle. Mat. 13th International Conference on Production Diseases in Farm Animals, Leipzig, pp. 246-272
71. Suthar VS, Canelas-Raposo J, Deniz A, Heuswieser W 2013: Prevalence of subclinical ketosis and relationships with postpartum diseases in European dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 96: 2925-2938 <>
72. Trevisi E, Ferrari AR, Bertoni G 2008: Productive and metabolic consequences induced by the retained placenta in dairy cows. Vet Res Com 32: 363-366 <>
73. Trevisi E, Amadori M, Cogrossi S, Razzuoli E, Bertoni G 2012: Metabolic stress and inflammatory response in high-yielding, periparturient dairy cows. Res Vet Sci 93: 695-704 <>
74. Wathers DC 2010: Interactions between energy balance, the immune system end the reproductive tract with influence on dairy cow fertility. Cattle Pract 18: 19-26
75. Wathers DC, Swangchan-Uthai T, Oguejiofor CF, Cheng Z 2013: Energy balance, immune function and fertility in the postpartum dairy cow. Cattle Pract 21: 129-137
76. Whitaker DA, Macrae AI, Burrough E 2005: Nutrition, fertility and dairy herd productivity. Cattle Pract 13: 27-32
77. Winnicka A 2011: Reference values of basic laboratory tests in veterinary medicine. Edition V amended SGGW, Warsaw, pp 40-72
78. Wilde D 2005: Mycotoxins - are they a threat to the UK dairy industry? Cattle Pract 13: 131-133
79. Wold AE 2001: Immune effects of probiotics. Scand J Nutr 45: 76-85
80. Wooding FBP 1992: Current Topic: The synepitheliochorial placenta of ruminants. Binucleate cell fusions and hormone production. Placenta 13: 101-113 <>
front cover
  • ISSN 0001-7213 (printed)
  • ISSN 1801-7576 (electronic)

Current issue