Acta Vet. Brno 2018, 87: 339-345

Results of cytological and microbiological examination using tracheal aspiration in race horses with lower respiratory tract disease

Sevim Kasap1, Engin Kennerman1, Huban Gocmen2, Huseyin Cihan1, Mihriban Ulgen3

1Uludag University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Bursa, Turkey
2Near East University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus, Turkey
3Uludag University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Bursa, Turkey

Received December 18, 2016
Accepted December 7, 2018


1. Bailey CJ, Reid SWJ, Hodgson DR, Rose RJ 1999: Impact of injuries and disease on a cohort of two- and three-year-old thoroughbreds in training. Vet Rec 145: 487-493 <>
2. Beech J 1975: Cytology of tracheabronchial aspirates in horses. Vet Path 12: 157-164 <>
3. Bond SL, Timsit E, Workentine M, Alexander T, Leguillette R 2017: Upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota in horses: bacterial communities associated with health and mild asthma (inflammatory airway disease) and effects of dexamethasone. BMC Microbiology 17: 184 <>
4. Burrel MH, Wood JL, Whitwell KE, Chanter N, Mackintosh ME, Munford JA 1996: Respiratory disease in thoroughbred horses in training: the relationships between disease and viruses, bacteria and environment. Vet Rec 139: 308-313 <>
5. Chapman PS, Green C, Main JPM, Taylor PM, Cunningham FM, Cook AJC, Marr CM 2000: Retrospective study of the relationships between age, inflammation and the isolation of bacteria from the lower respiratory tract of thoroughbred horses. Vet Rec 146: 91-95 <>
6. Christley RM, Hodgson DR, Rose RJ, Wood JLN, Reid SWJ, Whitear KG, Hodgson JL 2001: A case-control study of respiratory disease in thoroughbred racehorses in Sydney, Australia. Equine Vet J 33: 256-264 <>
7. Couetil LL, Hoffman AM, Hodgson J, Buechner-Maxwell V, Viel L, Woods JL, Lavoie JP 2007: ACVIM Consensus Statement, Inflammatory airway disease of horses. J Vet Intern Med 21: 356-361 <>
8. Davis EG, Freeman DE, Hardy J 2007: Respiratory infections. In: Sellon DC, Long MT (Eds): Equine Infectious Diseases. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp. 1-7
9. Debroy C, Roberts E, Jayarao BM, Brooks JW 2008: Bronchopneumonia associated with extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in a horse. J Vet Diagn Invest 20: 661-664 <>
10. Doucet MY, Vıel L 2002: Clinical, radiographic, endoscopic, bronchoalveolar lavage and lung biopsy findings in horses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Can Vet J 43: 195-202
11. Fernandes WR, Sanches A, Ramos MCC, Souza VRC, Coelho CS 2011: Microbiological findings of tracheobronchial washes of healthy horses and those wıth respiratory diseases. Ars Veterinaria 27: 73-79
12. Hobo S, Oikawa M, Kuwano A, Yoshida K, Yoshihara T 1997: Effect of transportation on the composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from horses. Am J Vet Res 58: 531-534
13. Hodgson JL, Hodgson DR 2003: Tracheal Aspirates: Indications, Technique and Interpretation. In: Robinson NE (Ed.): Current Therapy in Equine Medicine, Saunders, St. Louis. pp. 401-406
14. Ito S, Hobo S, Eto D, Sato H 2001: Bronchoalveolar lavage for the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia associated with transport in thoroughbred racehorses. J Vet Med Sci 63: 1263-1269 <>
15. Laus F, Attili AR, Cerquetella M, Spaterna A, Tesei B, Cuteri V 2009: Endoscopic findings, microbiological and cytological evaluation of tracheal aspirates in a population of Standardbred horses with poor performances. Vet Med 54: 444-450 <>
16. McGorum BC, Ellison J, Cullen RT 1998: Total and respirable airborne dust endotoxin concentrations in three equine management systems. Equine Vet J 30: 430-434 <>
17. Medica P, Giacoppo E, Fazio E, Aveni F, Pellizzotto R, Ferlazzo A 2010: Cortisol and haematochemical variables of horses during a two day trekking event: effects of preliminary transport. Equine Vet J 38: 167-170 <>
18. Newton JR, Wood JLN 1999: Summary of a case control study of acute respiratory disease in young Thoroughbred racehorses. In: Proceedings of British Equine Veterinary Association Congress, England 38: 190-191
19. Newton JR, Wood JL, Chanter N 2003: A case control study of factors and infections associated with clinically apparent respiratory disease in UK thoroughbred racehorses. Prev Vet Med 60: 107-132 <>
20. Ode H, Hobo S, Katayama Y, Nıwa H, Kuwamoto Y, Yamane T, Anzai TJ 2007: Cytological and bacteriological observation of tracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from thoroughbred racehorses with pneumonia associated with transport. Equine Sci 18: 161-165 <>
21. Pascoe JR, Ferraro GL, Cannon JH, Arthur RM, Wheat JD 1981: Exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage in racing thoroughbreds: a preliminary study. Am J Vet Res 42: 703-707
22. Racklyeft DJ, Love DN 2000: Bacterial ınfection of the lower respiratory tract in 34 horses. Aust Vet J 78: 549-559 <>
23. Raphel CF 1982: Endoscopic findings in the upper respiratory tract of 479 horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 181: 470-473
24. Santos LCP, Michelotto-Júnior PV, Kozemjakin DA 2007: Achados endoscópico e citológico das vias respiratórias de potros puro sangue inglês em início de treinamento no Jóquei Clube do Paraná (Respiratory endoscopic and cytological findings in English thoroughbred foals in the beginning of their training at Jóquei Club do Paraná). Arq Ciênc vet Zool UNIPAR 10: 9-13
25. Sweeney CR, Holcombe SJ, Barningham SC, Beech J 1991: Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates from horses with pneumonia or pleuropneumonia and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the aerobes. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198: 839-842
26. Takizawa Y, Hobo S, Yamauchi J, Yamane T, Kuwamoto Y, Wada R, Anzai T 2005: Cytological and bacteriological observation of tracheobroncial aspirates from young thoroughbreds transported by vehicle over long distance. J Equine Sci 16: 117-121 <>
27. Woods PS, Robinson NE, Swanson MC, Reed CE, Broadstone RV, Derksen FJ 1993: Airborne dust and aeroallergen concentration in a horse stable under two different management systems. Equine Vet J 25: 208-213 <>
front cover
  • ISSN 0001-7213 (printed)
  • ISSN 1801-7576 (electronic)

Current issue

Indexed in DOAJ