Acta Vet. Brno 2020, 89: 195-200

Interaction between autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis of infant mice (Mus musculus) brain cells from its carbofuran exposed mothers during lactation periods

Epy Muhammad Luqman1,2, Widjiati1, Eka Pramyrtha Hestianah1, Benyamin Christoffel Tehupuring1, Lita Rakhma Yustinasari1

1Universitas Airlangga, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Surabaya, Indonesia
2Universitas Airlangga, Post Graduate School, Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Surabaya, Indonesia

Received July 9, 2019
Accepted May 26, 2020

This study aimed to determine the mechanism of autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis in the neurons of infant mice (Mus musculus) whose mothers were exposed to carbofuran during the lactation period. This experimental study included 20 mice; carbofuran was administered at LD50 fractions by gavage to mice at the doses of 1.25 mg/kg body weight (BW) (1/4 LD50), 0.625 mg/kg BW (1/8 LD50), and 0.3125 mg/kg BW (1/16 LD50). Mothers were exposed to carbofuran during lactation on Days 1–9. On Day 10, infant mice were sacrificed in order to determine the number of neuron cells expressing protein kinase B (Akt) and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) as autophagy pathway using immunohistochemistry, apoptosis using the Tunel Assay, and necrosis using haematoxylin and eosin staining. The results of Akt, mTORC1, apoptosis, and cell necrosis were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan tests. The results of the study showed that exposing the mothers to carbofuran during lactation caused an increase in necrosis and apoptosis of neuronal cells but did not cause autophagy in neuron cells via the Akt/mTOR pathway of infant mice. The increase in apoptotic neurons opens up opportunities for the prevention and handling of the effects of reactive oxygen species activities due to carbofuran exposure during lactation periods.


The authors express sincere thanks to the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia for funding the research, the Director of Post Graduate School for funding, and the Dean of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine for providing all necessary facilities for conducting the study.


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