Acta Vet. Brno 2022, 91: 261-266

Sampling methods for determination of cortisol in pig saliva and their use in the assessment of pig welfare

Michaela Němečková, Tereza Popelková, Petr Chloupek

University of Veterinary Sciences Brno, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, Department of Animal Protection and Welfare and Veterinary Public Health, Brno, Czech Republic

Received October 25, 2021
Accepted June 14, 2022


1. Backus LB, Mcglone JJ 2018: Evaluating environmental enrichment as a method to alleviate pain after castration and tail docking in pigs. Appl Anim Behav Sci 204: 37-42 <>
2. Cook NJ, Schaefer AL, Lepage P, Morgan Jones SDM 1996: Salivary vs. serum cortisol for the assessment of adrenal activity in swine. Can J Anim Sci 76: 329-335 <>
3. Cook NJ, Schaefer AL, Lepage P, Morgan Jones SD 1997: Radioimmunoassay for cortisol in pig saliva and serum. J Agric Food Chem 45: 395-399 <>
4. Coutellier L, Arnould C, Boissy A, Orgeur P, Prunier A, Veissier I, Meunier-Salaün M-C 2007: Pig’s responses to repeated social regrouping and relocation during the growing-finishing period. Appl Anim Behav Sci 105: 102-114 <>
5. Griffith MK, Minton JE 1991: Free-running rhythms of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and melatonin in pigs. Domest Anim Endocrin 8: 201-208 <>
6. Lewis JG 2006: Steroid analysis in saliva: An overview. Clin Biochem Rev 27: 139-146
7. Magnano CL, Diamond EJ, Gardner JM 1989: Use of salivary cortisol measurements in young infants: a note of caution. Child Dev 60: 1099-1101 <>
8. Merlot E, Meunier-Salaün M-C, Prunier A 2004: Behavioural, endocrine and immune consequences of mixing in weaned piglets. Appl Anim Behav Sci 85: 247-257 <>
9. Mormérde P, Andanson S, Aupérin B, Beerda B, Guémené D, Malmkvist J, Manteca X, Manteuffel G, Prunet P, Reenen CG, Richard S, Veissier I 2007: Exploration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function as a tool to evaluate animal welfare. Physiol Behav 92: 317-339 <>
10. Ott S, Soler L, Moons CPH, Kashiha MA, Bahr C, Vandermeulen J, Janssens S, Gutiérrez AM, Escribano D, Cerón JJ, Berckmans D, Tuyttens FAM 2014: Different stressors elicit different response in the salivary biomarkers cortisol, haptoglobin and chromogranin A in pigs. Vet Sci 97: 124-128 <>
11. Prunier A, Mounier AM, Hay M 2005: Effects of castration, tooth resection or tail docking on plasma metabolites and stress hormones in young pigs. ASAS 83: 216-222
12. Strzelec K, Kankofer M, Pietrzak S 2011: Cortisol concentration in the saliva of horses subjected to different kinds of excercise. Acta Vet Brno 80: 101-105 <>
13. Sutherland MA, Davis BL, Brooks TA, Coetzee JF 2012: The physiological and behavioural response of pigs castrated with and without anaesthesia or analgesia. J Anim Sci 90: 2211-2221 <>
14. Urbanova M, Kramarova E, Chloupek J, Najmanova M 2019: Evaluation of stress in laboratory rabbits used for teaching purposes. Acta Vet Brno 88: 249-255 <>
15. Whembolua GL, Granger DA, Singer S, Kivlinghan KT, Marguin JA 2006: Bacteria in the oral mucosa and its effects on the measurement of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone in saliva. Horm Behav 9: 478-483 <>
front cover
  • ISSN 0001-7213 (printed)
  • ISSN 1801-7576 (electronic)

Current issue