Acta Vet. Brno 2008, 77: 297-304

Effect of Meat and Bone Meal Substitutes in Feed Mixes on Quality Indicators of Turkey Breast Meat

M. Slepičková1, L. Vorlová2

1Regional Veterinary Administration for Karlovy Vary Region
2Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno

Received August 13, 2007
Accepted February 14, 2008

We analyzed turkey breast meat composition in dependence on the presence of proteins of meat and bone meal origin in the feed mixes used. Farmers involved in the research with comparable zoohygienic and technological conditions of poultry management were divided into two groups. The principal difference between the groups was in the feed mixes they used. Poultry in Group 1 was fed feed mixes containing a total of 7.2 - 9.5% of meat and bone meal, fish meal and poultry meal and of 3.4 - 36.8% of soybean according to the age category as the main source of protein. In Group 2 the nutritious portion of meat and bone meal-based protein was substituted with soybean meal. Feed mixes fed to turkeys in Group 2 contained 9.35 - 35.25% soybean meal depending on the age group. Between 2002 and 2003, turkey meat samples were collected at a turkey slaughterhouse. The samples were cooled to + 4 °C and examined for meat binding characteristics, water content, and total fat. The remaining parts of samples were frozen and pooled. Then they were tested for their content of total protein, net muscle protein, collagen and 9 fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, oleic, eicosanic, erucic, linoleic and linolenic). Evaluation of the results showed that the absence of meat and bone meal in feed mixes had no effect on the indicators important for technological properties of male turkey breast muscle (meat binding characteristics, water content, content of total protein, net muscle protein and collagen). The results of the study, however, also demonstrated a decrease in total lipids (p < 0.05) and a change in the composition of fatty acids when meat and bone meal was replaced with soybean meal (Group 2). Also increased were the levels of palmitic, stearic and eicosanic fatty acids. The difference between eicosanic fatty acid levels was significant (p < 0.05). In the same group of birds, the level of oleic acid also decreased (p < 0.01). The change in total lipids and in the composition of fatty acids of male turkey breast muscle might be important with regards to human health (particularly cardiovascular and cancer diseases).