Acta Vet. Brno 2009, 78: 155-162

Disposition Kinetics and Optimal Dosage of Ciprofloxacin in Healthy Domestic Ruminant Species

Ijaz Javed1, Zahid Iqbal1, Zia-Ur-Rahman1, M. Zargham Khan2, Faqir Muhammad1, Bilal Aslam1, Mansoor A. Sandhu3, Javed I. Sultan4

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
2Department of Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
3Department of Physiology, University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, Pakistan
4Institute of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

Received February 8, 2008
Accepted October 1, 2008

The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the disposition kinetics and optimal dosages of ciprofloxacin in healthy domestic ruminant species including adult female buffalo, cow, sheep and goat. The drug was given as a single intramuscular dose of 5 mg/kg. The plasma concentrations of the drug were determined with HPLC and pharmacokinetic variables were determined. The biological half-life (t1/2 β was longer in cows (3.25 ± 0.46 h) followed by intermediate values in buffaloes (3.05 ± 0.20 h) and sheep (2.93 ± 0.45 h) and shorter in goats (2.62 ± 0.39 h). The volume of distribution (Vd) in buffaloes was 1.09 ± 0.06 l/kg, cows 1.24 ± 0.16 l/kg, sheep 2.89 ± 0.30 l/kg and goats 3.76 ± 0.92 l/kg. Total body clearance (ClB) expressed in l/h/kg was minimum in buffaloes 0.25 ± 0.02 followed by values in cows 0.31 ± 0.02 and sheep 0.75 ± 0.04 and maximum in goats 1.09 ± 0.11. An optimal dosage regimen for 12-h interval consisted of 5.17, 5.62, 6.54 and 6.10 mg/kg body weight as priming and 4.84, 5.37, 6.26 and 5.91 mg/kg body weight as maintenance intramuscular dose in buffalo, cow, sheep and goat, respectively. The manufacturers of ciprofloxacin have claimed 5 mg/kg dose to be repeated after 24 h. However, the investigated dosage regimen may be repeated after 12 h to maintain MIC at the end of the dosage interval. Therefore, it is imperative that an optimal dosage regimen be based on the disposition kinetics data determined in the species and environment in which a drug is to be employed clinically.