Acta Vet. Brno 2009, 78: 635-642

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Bone Tissue Regeneration and Application to Bone Healing

Michal Crha1, Alois Nečas1, Robert Srnec1, Jan Janovec1, Ladislav Stehlík1, Petr Raušer1, Lucie Urbanová1, Ladislav Plánka2, Josef Jančář3, Evžen Amler4

1Department of Surgery and Orthopaedics, Small Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Czech Republic
2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty Hospital Brno, Czech Republic
3Institute of Materials Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
4Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic

Received May 18, 2009
Accepted September 8, 2009

This synoptic study gives a concise overview of current knowledge of bone healing, the role of mesenchymal stem cells in bone tissue regeneration and contemporary possibilities of supporting regeneration of damaged bone. Attention of research concerning the healing of fractures with extensive loss of bone tissue following trauma, the treatment of belatedly healing or non-healing fractures or the healing of segmental bone defects following tumour resection, is focused on development of three-dimensional scaffolds planted with mesenchymal stem cells that might be used for reconstruction of such large bone lesions. Presented are possibilities of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells combined with biomaterials into bone defects, including the results of our own experimental studies dealing with the use of stem cells in the treatment of damaged tissues of the musculoskeletal system in animal models.