Acta Vet. Brno 2018, 87: 371-377

Immunolocalization of Na+/K+-ATPase and proliferative activity of enterocytes after administration of glucan in chickens fed T-2 toxin

Viera Revajová1, Róbert Herich1, Martin Levkut1, Rudolf Žitňan2, Elke Albrecht3, Monika Röntgen3, Mária Levkutová1, Viera Karaffová1, Zuzana Ševčíková1, Ema Paulovičová4, Mikuláš Levkut1,5

1University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Košice, Slovakia
2National Agriculture and Food Centre, Research Institute for Animal Production, Nitra, Slovakia
3Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Dummerstorf, Germany
4Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences (SAS), Bratislava, Slovakia
5Neuroimmunological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences (SAS), Bratislava, Slovakia

Received February 28, 2017
Accepted December 7, 2018

The protective effect of polysaccharide glucan in chickens fed low doses of T-2 toxin was assessed. The binder effect of β-D-glucan on jejunal mucosa in relation to the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, proliferative activity of enterocytes and number of goblet cells was investigated. A total of 40 one-day-old chickens were allocated to four groups: control (C), β-D-glucan (G), T-2 toxin (T) and combined β-D-glucan+T-2 toxin (GT). The chickens were individually administrated per os 1.0 mg/bird/day of β-D-glucan derived from Candida albicans on days 11, 12, and 21 of the experiment (totally 3 mg per bird). T-2 toxin at a concentration of 1.45 μg·kg-1 was added to the feed from day 14 to day 28 of the experiment. The α subunit-specific anti-Na+/K+-ATPase antibody was used to identify the protein by immunofluorescence in the cell membrane of jejunal enterocytes. Higher expression of Na+/K+-ATPase was found in the jejunal epithelial cells and lamina propria in the chickens fed T-2 toxin and administered glucan (P < 0.05) compared to control. The number of proliferated enterocytes was higher in group T compared to group G and control (P < 0.001), as well group GT (P < 0.01). Goblet cell density did not present significant differences between groups of chickens, but group G showed the highest values. These data suggest that administration of pure T-2 toxin at low doses affects primarily the protein synthesis of actively dividing cells. Higher distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase in enterocytes of chickens in GT group suggests positive influence of glucan and mycotoxin on the ion pump. A binding effect of this immunomodulator on the digestive tract mucosa in the applied setup was not observed.


This work was supported by the Grant Agency for Science of Slovak Republic VEGA - 1/0886/11, 1/0313/12, 1/0562/16, 1/0112/18, APVV-0302-11 and APVV-15-0165, and by the Project INFEKTZOON − Centre of Excellence for Animal Infections and Zoonoses (ITMS-26220120002) on the basis of support from the Operational Programme Research and Development funded by the European Regional Development Fund.


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